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Sample Research Paper On Malaria Treatment

1. Mubyazi GM, Gonzalez-Block MA. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug. Malaria J. 2005;4(1):51. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-51.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

2. Albert MA, Fretheim A, Maiga D. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali’s essential medicines. Health Res Policy Syst. 2007;5:2. doi: 10.1186/1478-4505-5-2.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

3. World Health Organization . Evidence Review Group meeting on Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) Geneva: WHO; 2012.

4. Lavis JN, Ross SE, Hurley JE. Examining the role of health services research in public policymaking. Milbank Q. 2002;80(1):125–54. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.00005.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

5. Durrheim DN, Williams HA, Barnes K, Speare R, Sharp BL. Beyond evidence: a retrospective study of factors influencing a malaria treatment policy change in two South African provinces. Critical Public Health. 2003;13(4):309–30. doi: 10.1080/09581590310001615862.[Cross Ref]

6. Bloland P, Ettling M. Making malaria treatment policy in the face of drug resistance. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1999;93(1):5–23. doi: 10.1080/00034989958753.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

7. Wongsrichanalai C, Pickard AL, Wernsdorfer WH, Meshnick SR. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2(4):209–18. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00239-6.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. Barat LM, Himonga B, Nkunika S, Ettling M, Ruebush TK, Kapelwa W, et al. A systematic approach to the development of a rational malaria treatment policy in Zambia. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;3(7):535–42. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.1998.00271.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

9. Shretta R, Omumbo J, Rapuoda B, Snow R. Using evidence to change antimalarial drug policy in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5(11):755–64. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00643.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Bloland PB, Ettling M, Meek S. Combination therapy for malaria in Africa: hype or hope? Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(12):1378–88.[PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Hanney SR, Gonzalez-Block MA, Buxton MJ, Kogan M. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment. Health Res Policy Syst. 2003;1:2. doi: 10.1186/1478-4505-1-2.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

12. Mutabingwa T, Nzila A, Mberu E, Nduati E, Winstanley P, Watkins W, et al. Drug resistant falciparum malaria in Tanzania: chlorproguanil-dapsone is effective treatment for infections resistant to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine. Lancet. 2001;358:1218–23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06344-9.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. Malik EM, Mohamed T, Elmardi K, Mowien R, Elhassan A, Elamin S, et al. From chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapy: the Sudanese experience. Malaria J. 2006;5(1):65. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-65.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Nwanyanwu OC, Ziba C, Kazembe P, Chitsulo L, Wirima JJ, Kumwenda N, et al. Efficacy of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Malawian children under five years of age. Trop Med Int Health. 1996;1(2):231–5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.1996.tb00032.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. United States Aid and Development Fund. President's Malaria Initiative: Malawi Malaria Operation plan (MOP). Washington, DC: USAID; 2011.

16. MacArthur J, Stennies GM, Macheso A, Kolczak MS, Green MD, Ali D, et al. Efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection in Machinga District, Malawi, 1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65(6):679–84.[PubMed]

17. Walt G, Shiffman J, Schneider H, Murray SF, Brugha R, Gilson L. ‘Doing’ health policy analysis: methodological and conceptual reflections and challenges. Health Policy Plan. 2008;23(5):308–17. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czn024.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

18. Munn Z, Moola S, Riitano D, Lisy K. The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence. Int J Health Policy Manage. 2014;3(3):123. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2014.71.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Ministry of Health Malawi. Guidelines for the Management of Malaria. Lilongwe: Ministry of Health; 1992.

20. Malaria Control Programme. Guide for the management of malaria (for physicians, clinical officers, medical assistants and nurses). Lilongwe: Ministry of Health; 1997.

21. Malawi National Malaria Control Programme. Revised guidelines for the treatment of malaria in Malawi. Lilongwe: Ministry of Health; 2013.

22. Giorgi A. Sketch of a psychological phenomenological method. Phenomenol Psychological Res. 1985;1:23–85.

23. Khoromana CO, Campbell CC, Wirima JJ, Heymann DL. In vivo efficacy of chloroquine treatment for Plasmodium falciparum in Malawian children under five years of age. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35(3):465–71.[PubMed]

24. Heymann DL, Khoromana CO, Wirima JJ, Campbell CC. Comparative efficacy of alternative primary therapies for Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81(5):722–4. doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(87)90005-8.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Bloland PB, Lackritz EM, Kazembe PN, Were JB, Steketee R, Campbell CC. Beyond chloroquine: implications of drug resistance for evaluating malaria therapy efficacy and treatment policy in Africa. J Infect Dis. 1993;167(4):932–7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/167.4.932.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

26. Heymann DL, Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, McFarland DA, Khoromana CO, Campbell CC. Antenatal chloroquine chemoprophylaxis in Malawi: chloroquine resistance, compliance, protective efficacy and cost. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84(4):496–8. doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(90)90011-3.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

27. Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ, Masache P, Kachale B, Kazembe P, Van der Kaay HJ. Parasitological and haematological responses to treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Malawi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1997;91(2):133–40.[PubMed]

28. Nwanyanwu OC, Ziba C, Macheso A, Kazembe P. Efficacy of sulphadoxine‐pyrimethamine for acute uncomplicated malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in Malawian children under five years old. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5(5):355–8. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00554.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

29. Takechi M, Matsuo M, Ziba C, Macheso A, Butao D, Zungu IL, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and susceptibility in vitro of P. falciparum isolates to sulphadoxine‐pyremethamine and other antimalarial drugs in Malawian children. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6(6):429–34. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00735.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Sulo J, Chimpeni P, Hatcher J, Kublin J, Plowe C, Molyneux M, et al. Chlorproguanil-dapsone versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for sequential episodes of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kenya and Malawi: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9340):1136–43. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11198-6.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

31. Luzzatto L. The rise and fall of the antimalarial Lapdap: a lesson in pharmacogenetics.

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne blood disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite.

It is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito.

Once an infected mosquito bites a human, the parasites multiply in the host's liver before infecting and destroying red blood cells.

In some places, malaria can be treated and controlled with early diagnosis. However, some countries lack the resources to do this effectively.

Currently, no vaccine is licensed for use in the United States or globally, although one is available in Europe.

Malaria was eliminated from the U.S. in the early 1950s, but between 1,500 and 2,000 cases still occur each year, mostly in those who have recently traveled to malaria-endemic areas.

Fast facts on malaria:

Here are some key points about the malaria. More detail is in the main article.

    • Malaria is typically spread by mosquitoes.
    • Symptoms resemble those of flu, but, without treatment, the effects can sometimes be long-term and fatal.
    • Travelers, hikers, and campers can protect themselves with medication, pest control, clothing, and nets.

What is malaria?


Malaria is passed on by the Anopheles mosquito.

Over 100 types of Plasmodium parasite can infect a variety of species. They replicate at different rates, and this affects how quickly the symptoms escalate, and the severity of the disease.

Five types of Plasmodium parasite can infect humans. They are found in different parts of the world. Some cause a more severe type of malaria than others.

Symptoms

Malaria symptoms can be classified into two categories: uncomplicated and severe malaria.

Uncomplicated malaria

This is diagnosed when symptoms are present, but there are no signs to indicate severe infection or dysfunction of the vital organs.

This form can become severe malaria if left untreated, or if the host has poor or no immunity.

Symptoms of uncomplicated malaria typically last 6 to 10 hours and recur every second day. Some strains of the parasite can have a longer cycle or cause mixed symptoms.

As symptoms resemble those of flu, they may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in areas where malaria is less common.

In uncomplicated malaria, symptoms progress as follows, through cold, hot, and sweating stages:

  • a sensation of cold with shivering
  • fever, headaches, and vomiting
  • seizures sometimes occur in younger people with the disease
  • sweats, followed by a return to normal temperature, with tiredness

In areas where malaria is common, many patients recognize the symptoms as malaria and treat themselves without visiting a doctor.

Severe malaria

In severe malaria, clinical or laboratory evidence shows signs of vital organ dysfunction.

Symptoms of severe malaria include:

  • fever and chills
  • impaired consciousness
  • prostration, or adopting a prone position
  • multiple convulsions
  • deep breathing and respiratory distress
  • abnormal bleeding and signs of anemia
  • clinical jaundice and evidence of vital organ dysfunction

Severe malaria can be fatal without treatment.

Causes

Malaria happens when a bite from the female Anopheles mosquito infects the body with Plasmodium. Only the Anopheles mosquito can transmit malaria.

The successful development of the parasite within the mosquito depends on several factors, the most important being humidity and ambient temperatures.

When an infected mosquito bites a human host, the parasite enters the bloodstream and lays dormant within the liver.

The host will have no symptoms for an average of 10.5 days, but the malaria parasite will begin multiplying during this time.

The new malaria parasites are then released back into the bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and multiply further. Some malaria parasites remain in the liver and are not released until later, resulting in recurrence.

An unaffected mosquito becomes infected once it feeds on an infected individual. This restarts the cycle.

Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is critical for a patient's recovery.

Anyone showing signs of malaria should be tested immediately.

The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly advise confirmation of the parasite through microscopic laboratory testing or by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), depending on the facilities available.

No combination of symptoms can reliably distinguish malaria from other causes, so a parasitological test is vital for identifying and managing the disease.

In some malaria-endemic areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the disease's severity can cause mild immunity in a large proportion of the local population.

As a result, some people carry the parasites in their bloodstream but do not fall ill.

Treatment

Treatment aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the patient's bloodstream.

Those without symptoms may be treated for infection to reduce the risk of disease transmission in the surrounding population.

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the WHO to treat uncomplicated malaria.

Artemisinin is derived from the plant Artemisia annua, better known as sweet wormwood. It is known for its ability to rapidly reduce the concentration of Plasmodium parasites in the bloodstream.

ACT is artemisinin combined with a partner drug. The role of artemisinin is to reduce the number of parasites within the first 3 days of infection, while the partner drugs eliminate the rest.

Expanding access to ACT treatment worldwide has helped reduce the impact of malaria, but the disease is becoming increasingly resistant to the effects of ACT.

In places where malaria is resistant to ACT, treatment must contain an effective partner drug.

The WHO has warned that no alternatives to artemisinin are likely to become available for several years.

Prevention

There are several ways to keep malaria at bay.

Vaccination

Research to develop safe and effective global vaccines for malaria is ongoing, with one vaccine already licensed for use in Europe. No vaccine is yet licensed in the U.S.

It is essential to seek medical attention for suspected symptoms of malaria as early as possible.

Prevention: Advice for travelers


Travelers to places where malaria is prevalent should take precautions, for example, using mosquito nets.

While malaria is not endemic to the U.S., travel to many countries around the world entails a risk.

Travelers are advised to:

  • find out what the risk of malaria is in the country and city or region they are visiting
  • ask their doctor what medications they should use to prevent infection in that region
  • obtain antimalarial drugs before leaving home, to avoid the risk of buying counterfeit drugs when away
  • consider the risk for individual travelers, including children, older people, pregnant women, and the existing medical conditions of any travelers
  • ensure they will have access to insect repellants, insecticides, pre-treated bed nets, and appropriate clothing
  • be aware of the symptoms of malaria

In emergency situations, local health authorities in some countries may carry out "fogging," or spraying areas with pesticides similar to those used in household sprays.

The WHO points out that these are not harmful for people, as the concentration of pesticide is only strong enough to kills mosquitoes.

While away, travelers should, where possible, avoid situations that increase the risk of being bitten by mosquitoes. Precautions include taking an air-conditioned room, not camping by stagnant water, and wearing clothes that cover the body at times when mosquitoes are most likely to be around.

For a year after returning home, the traveler may be susceptible to symptoms of malaria. Donating blood may also not be possible for some time.

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