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Oil Conservation Essay Wikipedia

For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation).

A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion).

The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized.

Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).

History[edit]

The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus nearly two million years ago.[2][page needed] Throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking.[3]

Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion,[4] but the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was later used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the primary use of coal is to generate electricity, providing 40% of the world's electrical power supply in 2005.[5]

Fossil fuels were rapidly adopted during the Industrial Revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources, such as water power. They have become a pivotal part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power.

Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols.

Chemical[edit]

Chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion. Most of the chemical energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel, but in the weak double bond of molecular oxygen.[6]

Chemical fuels are divided in two ways. First, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence: primary (natural fuel) and secondary (artificial fuel). Thus, a general classification of chemical fuels is:

Primary (natural)Secondary (artificial)
Solid fuelswood, coal, peat, dung, etc.coke, charcoal
Liquid fuelspetroleumdiesel, gasoline, kerosene, LPG, coal tar, naphtha, ethanol
Gaseous fuelsnatural gashydrogen, propane, methane, coal gas, water gas, blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, CNG

Solid fuel[edit]

Main article: Solid fuel

Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating, usually released through combustion. Solid fuels include wood , charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood (see wood pellets), corn, wheat, rye and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology also uses solid fuel (see solid propellants). Solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire. Coal was the fuel source which enabled the industrial revolution, from firing furnaces, to running steam engines. Wood was also extensively used to run steam locomotives. Both peat and coal are still used in electricity generation today. The use of some solid fuels (e.g. coal) is restricted or prohibited in some urban areas, due to unsafe levels of toxic emissions. The use of other solid fuels as wood is decreasing as heating technology and the availability of good quality fuel improves. In some areas, smokeless coal is often the only solid fuel used. In Ireland, peat briquettes are used as smokeless fuel. They are also used to start a coal fire.

Liquid fuels[edit]

Main article: Liquid fuel

Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. It is the fumes of liquid fuels that are flammable instead of the fluid.

Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust. However, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), ethanol, jet fuel and bio-diesel which are all categorized as a liquid fuel. Emulsified fuels of oil-in-water such as orimulsion have been developed a way to make heavy oil fractions usable as liquid fuels. Many liquid fuels play a primary role in transportation and the economy.

Some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, and that can be handled easily. Also they are relatively easy to use for all engineering applications, and home use. Fuels like kerosene are rationed in some countries, for example available in government subsidized shops in India for home use.

Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking, heating, and small engines. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can only exist as a liquid at very low temperatures (regardless of pressure), which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications. LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are easily compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions. It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CNG), but is denser than air, does not burn as cleanly, and is much more easily compressed. Commonly used for cooking and space heating, LP gas and compressed propane are seeing increased use in motorized vehicles; propane is the third most commonly used motor fuel globally.

AIDEN FAT[edit]

Main article: Fuel gas

Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that are gaseous under ordinary conditions. Many fuel gases are composed of hydrocarbons (such as methane or propane), hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or mixtures thereof. Such gases are sources of potential heat energy or light energy that can be readily transmitted and distributed through pipes from the point of origin directly to the place of consumption. Fuel gas is contrasted with liquid fuels and from solid fuels, though some fuel gases are liquefied for storage or transport. While their gaseous nature can be advantageous, avoiding the difficulty of transporting solid fuel and the dangers of spillage inherent in liquid fuels, it can also be dangerous. It is possible for a fuel gas to be undetected and collect in certain areas, leading to the risk of a gas explosion. For this reason, odorizers are added to most fuel gases so that they may be detected by a distinct smell. The most common type of fuel gas in current use is natural gas.

Biofuels[edit]

Main article: Biofuel

Biofuel can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of, or derived from biomass. Biomass can also be used directly for heating or power—known as biomass fuel. Biofuel can be produced from any carbon source that can be replenished rapidly e.g. plants. Many different plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacture.

Perhaps the earliest fuel employed by humans is wood. Evidence shows controlled fire was used up to 1.5 million years ago at Swartkrans, South Africa. It is unknown which hominid species first used fire, as both Australopithecus and an early species of Homo were present at the sites.[7] As a fuel, wood has remained in use up until the present day, although it has been superseded for many purposes by other sources. Wood has an energy density of 10–20 MJ/kg.[8]

Recently biofuels have been developed for use in automotive transport (for example Bioethanol and Biodiesel), but there is widespread public debate about how carbon efficient these fuels are.

Fossil fuels[edit]

Main article: Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (liquid petroleum or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of ancient plants and animals[9] by exposure to high heat and pressure in the absence of oxygen in the Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.[10] Commonly, the term fossil fuel also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived entirely from biological sources, such as tar sands. These latter sources are properly known as mineral fuels.

Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.[11] They range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. Fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants[9] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years.[12] This biogenic theory was first introduced by German scholar Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the 18th century.

It was estimated by the Energy Information Administration that in 2007 primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, coal 27.4%, natural gas 23.0%, amounting to an 86.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world.[13] Non-fossil sources in 2006 included hydroelectric 6.3%, nuclear 8.5%, and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%.[14] World energy consumption was growing about 2.3% per year.

Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made. So we must conserve these fuels and use them judiciously. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year (one tonne of atmospheric carbon is equivalent to 44/12 or 3.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide).[15] Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming, causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise in response, which the vast majority of climate scientists agree will cause major adverse effects. Fuels are a source of energy.

Energy[edit]

The amount of energy from different types of fuel depends on the stoichiometric ratio, the chemically correct air and fuel ratio to ensure complete combustion of fuel, and its specific energy, the energy per unit mass.

FuelSpecific energy (MJ/kg)AFR stoich.FAR stoich.Energy @ λ=1 (MJ/kg(Air))
Diesel4814.5 : 10.069 : 13.310
Ethanol26.49 : 10.111 : 12.933
Gasoline46.414.7 : 10.068 : 13.156
Hydrogen14234.3 : 10.029 : 14.140
Kerosene4615.6 : 10.064 : 12.949
LPG46.417.2 : 10.058 : 12.698
Methanol19.76.47 : 10.155 : 13.045
Nitromethane11.631.7 : 10.588 : 16.841

1 MJ ≈ 0.28 kWh ≈ 0.37 HPh.

Nuclear[edit]

Main article: Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is any material that is consumed to derive nuclear energy. Technically speaking, all matter can be a nuclear fuel because any element under the right conditions will release nuclear energy,[dubious– discuss] but the materials commonly referred to as nuclear fuels are those that will produce energy without being placed under extreme duress. Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy. Nuclear fuel can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials.

Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements that are capable of nuclear fission. When these fuels are struck by neutrons, they are in turn capable of emitting neutrons when they break apart. This makes possible a self-sustaining chain reaction that releases energy with a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor or with a very rapid uncontrolled rate in a nuclear weapon.

The most common fissile nuclear fuels are uranium-235 (235U) and plutonium-239 (239Pu). The actions of mining, refining, purifying, using, and ultimately disposing of nuclear fuel together make up the nuclear fuel cycle. Not all types of nuclear fuels create power from nuclear fission. Plutonium-238 and some other elements are used to produce small amounts of nuclear power by radioactive decay in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and other types of atomic batteries. Also, light nuclides such as tritium (3H) can be used as fuel for nuclear fusion. Nuclear fuel has the highest energy density of all practical fuel sources.

Fission[edit]

The most common type of nuclear fuel used by humans is heavy fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fissionchain reactions in a nuclear fission reactor; nuclear fuel can refer to the material or to physical objects (for example fuel bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, perhaps mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. The most common fissile nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu, and the actions of mining, refining, purifying, using, and ultimately disposing of these elements together make up the nuclear fuel cycle, which is important for its relevance to nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons.

Fusion[edit]

Fuels that produce energy by the process of nuclear fusion are currently not utilized by humans but are the main source of fuel for stars. Fusion fuels tend to be light elements such as hydrogen which will combine easily. Energy is required to start fusion by raising temperature so high all materials would turn into plasma, and allow nuclei to collide and stick together with each other before repelling due to electric charge. This process is called fusion and it can give out energy.

In stars that undergo nuclear fusion, fuel consists of atomic nuclei that can release energy by the absorption of a proton or neutron. In most stars the fuel is provided by hydrogen, which can combine to form helium through the proton-proton chain reaction or by the CNO cycle. When the hydrogen fuel is exhausted, nuclear fusion can continue with progressively heavier elements, although the net energy released is lower because of the smaller difference in nuclear binding energy. Once iron-56 or nickel-56 nuclei are produced, no further energy can be obtained by nuclear fusion as these have the highest nuclear binding energies. The elements then on use up energy instead of giving off energy when fused. Therefore, fusion stops and the star dies. In attempts by humans, fusion is only carried out with hydrogen (isotope of 2 and 3) to form helium-4 as this reaction gives out the most net energy. Electric confinement (ITER), inertial confinement(heating by laser) and heating by strong electric currents are the popular methods used. .[16]

World trade[edit]

The World Bank reported that the USA was the top fuel importer in 2005 followed by the EU and Japan.[citation needed]

Liquid fuels for transportation[edit]

Most transportation fuels are liquids, because vehicles usually require high energy density. This occurs naturally in liquids and solids. High energy density can also be provided by an internal combustion engine. These engines require clean-burning fuels. The fuels that are easiest to burn cleanly are typically liquids and gases. Thus, liquids meet the requirements of being both energy-dense and clean-burning. In addition, liquids (and gases) can be pumped, which means handling is easily mechanized, and thus less laborious.

See also[edit]

[edit]

  1. ^Schobert, Harold (2013-01-17). Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521114004. 
  2. ^Leakey, Richard (1994). Origin of Humankind. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03135-8. 
  3. ^Hall, Loretta (2007). "Charcoal Briquette". How Products Are Made. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  4. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fuel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–286. 
  5. ^"History of Coal Use". World Coal Institute. Archived from the original on 7 October 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2006. 
  6. ^Schmidt-Rohr, K (2015). "Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2". J. Chem. Educ. 92 (12): 2094–2099. Bibcode:2015JChEd..92.2094S. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.5b00333. 
  7. ^Rincon, Paul (22 March 2004). "Bones hint at first use of fire". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  8. ^Elert, Glenn (2007). "Chemical Potential Energy". The Physics Hypertextbook. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  9. ^ abDr. Irene Novaczek. "Canada's Fossil Fuel Dependency". Elements. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  10. ^"Fossil fuel". EPA. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  11. ^"Fossil fuel". Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. 
  12. ^"Fossil fuel". EPA. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  13. ^"U.S. EIA International Energy Statistics". Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  14. ^"International Energy Annual 2006". Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009. 
  15. ^"US Department of Energy on greenhouse gases". Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  16. ^Fewell, M. P. (1995). "The atomic nuclide with the highest mean binding energy". American Journal of Physics. 63 (7): 653–658. Bibcode:1995AmJPh..63..653F. doi:10.1119/1.17828. 

References[edit]

  • Ratcliff, Brian; et al. (2000). Chemistry 1. Cambridge University press. ISBN 0-521-78778-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fuels.
Coal is an important solid fuel
A 20-pound (9.1 kg) propane cylinder
CANDU fuel bundles Two CANDU ("CANada Deuterium Uranium") fuel bundles, each about 50 cm long and 10 cm in diameter

Type

Public Sector Undertaking
Traded asNSE: ONGC
BSE: 500312
BSE SENSEX Constituent
CNX Nifty Constituent
IndustryOil and gas industry FMCG Sector
Founded14 August 1956
HeadquartersDehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Key people

Shri Shashi Shanker[1]
(Chairman And Director)
ProductsPetroleum, natural gas, and other petrochemicals
Revenue₹142,148.96 crore (US$22 billion) (2017)[2]

Operating income

₹29,969.90 crore (US$4.6 billion) (2017)[2]

Net income

₹20,408.17 crore (US$3.1 billion) (2017)[2]
Total assets₹413,904.05 crore (US$63 billion) (2017)[2]
OwnerGovernment Of India

Number of employees

33,560+(2017)[3]
DivisionsMRPL
ONGC Videsh Ltd
HPCL Ltd
OTPC
OPAL
OMPL
PETRONET
PHHL
Websitehttp://www.ongcindia.com/

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) is an Indian multinationaloil and gascompanyheadquartered in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. It is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. It is India's largest oil and gas exploration and production company. It produces around 77% of India's crude oil (equivalent to around 30% of the country's total demand) and around 62% of its natural gas.[4]

On 31 March 2013, its market capitalisation was INR 57.2 trillion (US$728 billion), making it India's first largest publicly traded company.[5][6] In a government survey for fiscal year 2016-17, it was ranked as the largest profit making PSU in India.[7] It is ranked 1st among the Top 250 Global Energy Companies by Platts.[8]

ONGC was founded on 14 August 1956 by Government of India, which currently holds a 68.94% equity stake. It is involved in exploring for and exploiting hydrocarbons in 26 sedimentary basins of India, and owns and operates over 11,000 kilometers of pipelines in the country. Its international subsidiary ONGC Videsh currently has projects in 17 countries. ONGC has discovered 6 of the 7 commercially producing Indian Basins, in the last 50 years, adding over 7.1 billion tonnes of In-place Oil & Gas volume of hydrocarbons in Indian basins. Against a global decline of production from matured fields, ONGC has maintained production from its brownfields like Mumbai High, with the help of aggressive investments in various IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) and EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) schemes. ONGC has many matured fields with a current recovery factor of 25–33%.[4] Its Reserve Replacement Ratio for between 2005 and 2013, has been more than one.[4] During FY 2012–13, ONGC had to share the highest ever under-recovery of INR 8993.78 billion (an increase of INR 567.89 million over the previous financial year) towards the under-recoveries of Oil Marketing Companies (IOC, BPCL and HPCL).[4] On 1 November 2017, the Union Cabinet approved ONGC for acquiring majority 51.11 % stake in HPCL (Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited).

History[edit]

Foundation to 1961[edit]

Before the independence of India in 1947, the Assam Oil Company in the north-eastern and Attock Oil company in north-western part of the undivided India were the only oil producing companies, with minimal exploration input. The major part of Indian sedimentary basins was deemed to be unfit for development of oil and gas resources.[9]

After independence, the Central Government of India realized the importance of oil and gas for rapid industrial development and its strategic role in defense. Consequently, while framing the Industrial Policy Statement of 1948, the development of petroleum industry in the country was considered to be of utmost necessity.[9]

Until 1955, private oil companies mainly carried out exploration of hydrocarbon resources of India. In Assam, the Assam Oil Company was producing oil at Digboi (discovered in 1889) and Oil India Ltd. (a 50% joint venture between Government of India and Burmah Oil Company) was engaged in developing two newly discovered large fields Naharkatiya and Moraan in Assam. In West Bengal, the Indo-Stanvac Petroleum project (a joint venture between Government of India and Standard Vacuum Oil Company of USA) was engaged in exploration work. The vast sedimentary tract in other parts of India and adjoining offshore remained largely unexplored.[9]

In 1955, Government of India decided to develop the oil and natural gas resources in the various regions of the country as part of the Public Sector development. With this objective, an Oil and Natural Gas Directorate was set up towards the end of 1955, as a subordinate office under the then Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research. The department was constituted with a nucleus of geoscientists from the Geological Survey of India.[9]

A delegation under the leadership of the Minister of Natural Resources visited several European countries to study the status of oil industry in those countries and to facilitate the training of Indian professionals for exploring potential oil and gas reserves. Experts from Romania, the Soviet Union, the United States and West Germany subsequently visited India and helped the government with their expertise. Soviet experts later drew up a detailed plan for geological and geophysical surveys and drilling operations to be carried out in the 2nd Five Year Plan (1956–61).[9]

In April 1956, the Government of India adopted the Industrial Policy Resolution, which placed Mineral Oil Industry among the schedule 'A' industries, the future development of which was to be the sole and exclusive responsibility of the state.[9]

Soon, after the formation of the Oil and Natural Gas Directorate, it became apparent that it would not be possible for the Directorate with its limited financial and administrative powers as subordinate office of the Government, to function efficiently. So in August, 1956, the Directorate was raised to the status of a commission with enhanced powers, although it continued to be under the government. In October 1959, the Commission was converted into a statutory body by an act of the Indian Parliament, which enhanced powers of the commission further. The main functions of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission subject to the provisions of the Act, were "to plan, promote, organize and implement programs for development of Petroleum Resources and the production and sale of petroleum and petroleum products produced by it, and to perform such other functions as the Central Government may, from time to time, assign to it ". The act further outlined the activities and steps to be taken by ONGC in fulfilling its mandate.[9]

1961 to 2000[edit]

Since its inception, ONGC has been instrumental in transforming the country's limited upstream sector into a large viable playing field, with its activities spread throughout India and significantly in overseas territories. In the inland areas, ONGC not only found new resources in Assam but also established new oil province in Cambay basin (Gujarat), while adding new petroliferous areas in the Assam-Arakan Fold Belt and East coast basins (both onshore and offshore).[9] ONGC went offshore in the early 1970s and discovered a giant oil field in the form of Bombay High, now known as Mumbai High. This discovery, along with subsequent discoveries of huge oil and gas fields in Western offshore changed the oil scenario of the country. Subsequently, over 5 billion tonnes of hydrocarbons, which were present in the country, were discovered. The most important contribution of ONGC, however, is its self-reliance and development of core competence in E&P activities at a globally competitive level.[9]

ONGC became a publicly held company in February 1994, with 20% of its equity were sold to the public and eighty percent retained by the Indian government. At the time, ONGC employed 48,000 people and had reserves and surpluses worth ₹104.34 billion, in addition to its intangible assets. The corporation's net worth of ₹107.77 billion was the largest of any Indian company.

In 1958 the then Chairman, Keshav Dev Malaviya, held a meeting with some geologists in the Mussoorie office of the Geology Directorate where he accepted the need for ONGC to go outside India too in order to enhance Indian owned capacity for oil production. The argument in support for this step, by LP Mathur and BS Negi, was that Indian demand for crude would go up at a faster rate than discoveries by ONGC in India.

Malaviya followed this up by making ONGC apply for exploration licences in the Persian Gulf. Iran gave ONGC four blocks and Malaviya visited Milan and Bartlseville to request ENI and Phillips Petroleum to join as partners in the Iran venture. This resulted in the discovery of the Rostum oilfield in the early 'sixties, very soon after the discovery of Ankleswar in Gujarat. This was the very first investment by the Indian public sector in foreign countries and oil from Rostum and Raksh was brought to Cochin where it was refined in a refinery built with technical assistance from Phillips.

2001 to present[edit]

In 2003, ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), the division of ONGC concerned with its foreign assets, acquired Talisman Energy's 25% stake in the Greater Nile Oil project.[10]

In 2006, a commemorative coin set was issued to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of ONGC, making it only the second Indian company (State Bank of India being the first) to have such a coin issued in its honor.

In 2011, ONGC applied to purchase 2000 acres of land at Dahanu to process offshore gas.[11] ONGC Videsh, along with Statoil ASA (Norway) and Repsol SA (Spain), has been engaged in deep-water drilling off the northern coast of Cuba in 2012.[12] On 11 August 2012, ONGC announced that it had made a large oil discovery in the D1 oilfield off the west coast of India, which will help it to raise the output of the field from around 12,500 barrels per day (bpd) to a peak output of 60,000 bpd.[13]

In November 2012, OVL agreed to acquire ConocoPhillips' 8.4% stake in the Kashagan oilfield in Kazakhstan for around US$5 billion, in ONGC's largest acquisition to date.[14] The acquisition is subject to the approval of the governments of Kazakhstan and India and also to other partners in the Caspian Sea field waiving their pre-emption rights.[15]

In January 2014, OVL and Oil India completed the acquisition of Videocon Group's ten percent stake in a Mozambican gas field for a total of $2.47 billion.[16]

In June 2015, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) gave a Rs27bn ($427m) offshore contract for the Bassein development project to Larsen & Toubro (L&T).[17]

In February 2016, the board of ONGC approved an investment of Rs. 5,050 crore in Tripura for drilling of wells and creation of surface facilities to produce 5.1 million standard cubic feet per day gas from the state's fields.[18]

On 19 July 2017, the Government of India approved the acquisition of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation by ONGC.[19]

Operations[edit]

ONGC's operations include conventional exploration and production, refining and progressive development of alternate energy sources like coal-bed methane and shale gas.[20] The company's domestic operations are structured around 11 assets (predominantly oil and gas producing properties), 7 basins (exploratory properties), 2 plants (at Hazira and Uran) and services (for necessary inputs and support such as drilling, geo-physical, logging and well services).[20]

Subsidiaries[edit]

ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) is the international arm of ONGC. It was rechristened on 15 June 1989. The primary business of ONGC Videsh is to prospect for oil and gas acreages outside India, including exploration, development and production of oil and gas. It currently has 38 projects across 17 countries. Its oil and gas production reached 8.87 MMT of O+oEG in 2010, up from 0.252 MMT of O+OEG in 2002/03. ONGC holds 100% stake in ONGC Videsh Limited.[4]

Presence of ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) in Latin America;

  • Brazil (Block BC-10, BM-SEAL-4, BM-BAR-1, BM-ES-42, BM-S-73 & S-74)
  • Colombia (Block LLA-69, RC-8, RC-9, RC-10, SSJN-7 & CPO-5)
  • Cuba (Block N-25, N-26, N-27, N-28, N-29 N-34, N-35 & N-36 Block)
  • Venezuela (Block San Cristobal, Block Carabobo-1)

Presence of ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) in CIS & Far-East;

  • Vietnam (Block 06.1, 127, 128)
  • Myanmar (Block A-1, A-3, AD-2, AD-3 & AD-9, Pipeline Project- PipeCo-1, PipeCo-2)
  • Russia (Block Sakhalin-I, 69, 70–1, 70–2, 70–3, 77, 80, 85–1, 85–2 and 86)(15% shares in csjc vancourneft company of vancour)
  • Kazakhstan (Satpayev Exploration Block)

Presence of ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) in Africa;

  • Libya (Block NC-189, 81–1, Contract Area 43)
  • Nigeria (Block OPL 279, OPL 285, Block-2)
  • Sudan & South Sudan (GNOP/GNPOC/GPOC- 1, 2 & 4, Block 5A, Pipeline- Khartoum-Port Project)
  • Mozambique (Rovuma Area 1 Offshore)

Presence of ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) in Middle East;

  • (Al Furat (4 PSA), Block-XXIV)
  • "Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited":

It is an oil refinery at Mangalore. MRPL has a design capacity to process 15 million metric tons per annum and have 2 Hydrocrackers producing Premium Diesel (High Cetane). It also has 2 CCRs producing Unleaded Petrol of High Octane.

ONGC Sports[edit]

ONGC is holding many sport teams, such as athletics, badminton, basketball, boxing, chess, cricket, cue sports, carrom, field hockey, football, kabaddi, shooting, table tennis, tennis, volleyball and wrestling. Its football team, ONGC F.C., once played in Indian I-League.

The basketball team in particular is known internationally since several of the players of India's national basketball team have played there. These players include Vishesh Bhriguvanshi, Amritpal Singh, Yadwinder Singh, and others.

Joint Ventures[edit]

  • ONGC Tripura Power Company:

ONGC Tripura Power Company Ltd (OTPC) is a joint venture which was formed in September 2008 between ONGC, Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Limited and the Government of Tripura. It is developing a 726.6 MW CCGT thermal power generation project at Palatana in Tripura which will supply electricity to the power deficit areas of the north eastern states of the country.[21] OTPC have 2 no 9FA machines supplied by GE USA. A 400 kV D/C Transmission system connecting Palatana (generation project site) in Tripura to Bongaigaon in Assam over a distance of around 650 km for the evacuation of power from the generation project.

The development and operation of the transmission system would be undertaken by North-East Transmission Company Limited (NETCL) a joint venture of OTPC, PowerGrid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) and the North Eastern Region beneficiary states. OTPC has been granted in-principle approval for Mega Power Project (MPP) status by GoI on 27 July 2006 for the Project. The company is applying to MoP, GoI for final approval of MPP status and the same is expected to be obtained shortly. The Generation Project is being domiciled in ONGC Tripura Power Company Ltd. ("OTPC" or "the Company"), a Special Purpose Vehicle promoted by ONGC, IL&FS Limited and Government of Tripura (GoT).[22]

  • ONGC Petro Additions Limited:

ONGC Petro additions Limited (OPaL), a multi billion joint venture company was incorporated in 2006, as a Public Limited Company under the companies Act, 1956, promoted by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and co-promoted by GAIL and GSPC.

OPaL is setting up a grass root mega Petrochemical project at Dahej, Gujarat in PCPIR/SEZ. The complex's main Dual Feed Cracker Unit has the capacity to produce 1100 KTPA Ethylene, 400 KTPA Propylene and the Associated Units consists of Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation Unit, Butadiene Extraction Unit and Benzene Extraction Unit. The Polymer plants of OPaL has 2X360 KTPA of LLDPE/HDPE Swing unit, 1X340 KTPA of Dedicated HDPE and 1x340 KTPA of PP. All the major contracts have been awarded and the construction is in full swing.[citation needed]

Products and services[edit]

ONGC supplies crude oil, natural gas, and value-added products to major Indian oil and gas refining and marketing companies. Its primary products crude oil and natural gas are for the Indian market.[20]

Product-wise revenue breakup for FY 2012–13 (₹ billion):[23]

ProductRevenue
Crude oil562.38
Gas168.88
LPG031.48
Naptha076.80
C2-C3013.44
SKO003.69
Others001.59
Adjustments– 32.74
Total825.52

Listings and Shareholding[edit]

The equity shares of ONGC are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange,[24] where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index,[25] and the National Stock Exchange of India,[26] where it is a constituent of the S&P CNX Nifty.[27]

As on 31 March 2013, Government of India held around 69% equity shares in ONGC. Over 480,000 individual shareholders hold approx. 1.65% of its shares.[28]Life Insurance Corporation of India is the largest non-promoter shareholder in the company with 7.75% shareholding.[4]

Shareholders (as on 31-Mar-2013)Shareholding[4]
Promoter – Government of India68.94%
Government Companies10.09%
Banks, Financial Inst. & Insurance companies09.69%
Foreign Institutional Investors (FII)06.27%
Private Corporate Bodies01.83%
Individual shareholders01.65%
Mutual Funds and UTI01.13%
NRI/Employees00.11%
Total100.0%

Employees[edit]

As on 31 March 2017, the company has 33,600 employees, out of which 2,208 are women (6.57%) and 245 are employees with disabilities (0.73%).[29]

Awards and recognitions[edit]

  • ONGC is the top Employer in the Energy sector in India, in the Randstad Awards 2013.[30]
  • ONGC was one of 12 winners of the 'Golden Peacock Award 2014' for its corporate social responsibility practices,[31] and one of 24 winners of the 'Golden Peacock Award 2013' in the occupational safety and health category.[32]
  • In April 2013, it was ranked at 155th place in the Forbes Global 2000 for 2012.[33][34]
  • In 2011, ONGC was ranked 39th among the world's 105 largest listed companies in 'transparency in corporate reporting' by Transparency International making it the most transparent company in India.
  • It was conferred with 'Maharatna' status by the Government of India in November 2010.[35] The Maharatna status to select PSUs allows more freedom in decision making.[35][36]
  • In February 2014, FICCI conferred it with Best Company Promoting Sports Award.[37]
  • ONGC wins the "Greentech Excellence Award" for the year 2013 in Platinum Category
  • ONGC was ranked 82nd among India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2012, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory. In the Brand Trust Report 2013, ONGC was ranked 191st among India's most trusted brands and subsequently, according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, ONGC was ranked 370th among India's most trusted brands.[38]
  • The country's favorite newspaper Amar Ujala and oil and natural gas company ONGC have rewarded the country's giant companies. ONGC is the title sponsor for the first edition of the Corporate social responsibility(CSR) Award organised by Amar Ujala[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ONGC India: Chairman & Managing Director
  2. ^ abcdhttp://www.ongcindia.com/wps/wcm/PDF/AnnualReport/AR201617.pdf
  3. ^Directory of key officers and employees http://www.ongcindia.com/wps/wcm/connect/ongcindia/home/rti/information/directory+of+key+officers+and+employees
  4. ^ abcdefg"Annual Report 2012-13"(PDF). ONGC. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  5. ^"Table 4-12: Top '50' Companies by Market Capitalisation as on March 31, 2013". NSE India. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  6. ^"Eight blue-chip cos add Rs 44,239 cr in market cap". The Hindu. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  7. ^"ONGC is No 1 profit-making PSU, BSNL worst performer: Survey". Indian Express. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  8. ^"Platts Top 250 Companies – Oil & Natural Gas Corp Ltd". Platts. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  9. ^ abcdefghi"History". ONGC. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  10. ^"Talisman pulls out of Sudan". BBC News. Associated Press. 10 March 2003. Retrieved 4 May 2012. 
  11. ^Lewis, Clara (11 Sep 2011). "ONGC seeks 2K acres govt land at Dahanu". Times of India. Times News Network. 
  12. ^Oil and Gas Journal 22May2012 http://www.ogj.com/articles/2012/05/repsol-declares-cuba-deepwater-wildcat-dry.html
  13. ^"ONGC makes huge oil discovery off West coast". 12 August 2012. 
  14. ^"India's ONGC to pay $5bn for Conoco's Kashagan stake". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  15. ^"Indian OVL to Buy ConocoPhillips's Stake in Kashagan Field". The Gazette of Central Asia. 27 November 2012. 
  16. ^OVL and OIL complete acquisition of Mozambique's offshore gas field, Africa: Oil Review Africa, 2014 
  17. ^L&T secures $427m offshore contract for Bassein gas field project from ONGC, 2015 
  18. ^"ONGC board approves Rs. 5,050-cr investment in Tripura". The Hindu. Agartala. PTI. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  19. ^http://www.hindustantimes.com/business-news/cabinet-allows-ongc-to-buy-out-govt-stake-in-refiner-hpcl/story-2oqzKRbSfScBDmCt3oiL2L.html
  20. ^ abc"Corporate Sustainability Report 2011-12"(PDF). ONGC. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  21. ^ONGC Tripura Power Project. Otpcindia.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  22. ^http://www.otpcindia.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45:ongc-tripura-power-project&catid=25:the-project
  23. ^"Financial Results: 2013–14 Q1- ONGC/OVL/MRPL"(PDF). ONGC. August 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  24. ^"ONGC LTD". BSEindia.com. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  25. ^"Scripwise Weightages in S&P BSE SENSEX". BSE India. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  26. ^"NTPC Limited". NSE India. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  27. ^"Download List of CNX Nifty stocks (.csv)". NSE India. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  28. ^"Shareholding Pattern as on 31 March 2013". MoneyControl.com. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  29. ^"ONGC Annual report 2016-17"(PDF). 
  30. ^"Microsoft most attractive employer in India: Survey". Times of India. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  31. ^"Corporate Social Responsibility (GPACSR)". goldenpeacockawards.com. Retrieved 26 Jun 2015. 
  32. ^"Occupational Health & Safety Award (GPOHSA)". goldenpeacockawards.com. Retrieved 26 Jun 2015. 
  33. ^"Forbes Global 2000: ONGC climbs 16 ranks to position at 155". ONGC. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  34. ^"Oil & Natural Gas". Forbes. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  35. ^ ab"ONGC, IOC conferred Maharatna status". Business Standard. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  36. ^"Maharatna status for IOC, ONGC and NTPC". The Hindu. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  37. ^"FICCI announces the Winners of India Sports Awards for 2014". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  38. ^"India's Most Trusted Brands 2014". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. 
  39. ^"Amar Ujala CSR Award". Amar Ujala. Retrieved 31 October 2017. 
  40. ^"Oil India Limited :: A Navratna Company". www.oil-india.com. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  41. ^"IIT (ISM), Dhanbad Alumni Working at ONGC". ismdhanbad.almaconnect.com. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  42. ^http://www.topnews.in/sonia-lay-foundation-rajiv-gandhi-petroleum-institute-rae-bareli-221339

Further reading[edit]

  • "UPSTREAM INDIA Fifty Golden Years of ONGC" by ONGC group publications year 2006 is official narrative of history of ONGC.
  • Story of ONGC by I.A.Farooqi gives a historical account of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation from its foundation to the year 2000.

External links[edit]

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