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Essays By Mitrany

In a collection of essays Romanian born Mitrany, a historian and political theorist, presents his ideas about the voluntary cooperation of nations to create institutions with common interests. The author has been recognized internationally as the founder of the Functionalist Movement, also known as liberal institutionalism. His writings and views reflect the beliefs of worIn a collection of essays Romanian born Mitrany, a historian and political theorist, presents his ideas about the voluntary cooperation of nations to create institutions with common interests. The author has been recognized internationally as the founder of the Functionalist Movement, also known as liberal institutionalism. His writings and views reflect the beliefs of world community and world peace in the 1940s. This book is a 1966 U.S. publication by Quadrangle Books, Chicago. Mitrany served as a professor in the Princeton Univ. School of Economics and Politics at the Institute for Advanced Study at its inception in 1933-39 and again from 1946-56. He resided in Great Britain at the time of his death in 1975....more

221 pages

Published 1966 by Quadrangle Books (first published 1943)

1.MitranyD., A Working Peace System: An argument for the Functional Development of International Organisation (London, RIIA, 1943). First published as a Chatham House paper, this essay was reprinted in 1966 as one of severa l essays in a volume of the same name, A Working Peace System (Chicago, 1966). A second volume of collected essays, including some previously unpublished, was published as the Functional Theory of Politics (London, 1975). Other works by David Mitrany which illustrate the development of his approach include those below. Where reprinted in one of the above collections, the works below are indicated thus, ‘and 1966’ or ‘and 1975’. In subsequent references to these many essays each will be indicated where possible by its location in one of the two volumes above (in most cases the only place currently in print). The Progress of International Government (London, 1933 and 1975 pp. 85–104).Territorial, ideological or functional international organisation (Foreign Office Paper, 1941, unpublished, and 1975 pp. 105–122).‘The Functional Approach to World Organisation’, International Affairs vol. 24, no. 3 (1948) pp. 350–361.‘An Advance in Democratic Representation’ International Associations (Brussels, March 1954, and 1966, pp. 121–126).‘The Prospect for European Integration; Federal or Functional’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. IV, no. 2 (December 1965) pp. 119–149, and 1966. The Making of the Functional Theory’ 1969 unpublished, and 1975 pp. 3–46. ‘The Functional Approach in Historical Perspective, International Affairs (vol. 47, no. 3, July 1971) pp. 533–543.‘The End of Morality in War’, International Relations (vol. IV, no. 4, November 1973) and 1975 pp. 231–238. See also, The Problem of International Sanctions (Oxford, 1925).International Security (National Peace Council, 1944) and 1975, pp. 180–184.

2. See HarrisonR. J., Europe in Question (London, 1974); PentlandC., International Theory and European Integration (London, 1973); also, two key contributions, HaasE. B., ‘Regional Integration: The Joys and Anguish of Pre-Theorising’, International Organisation, vol. 24, no. 3 (1970) pp. 607–646, and ‘Turbulent Fields and the Theory of Regional Integration’, International Organisation, vol. 30, no. 1 (1976), pp. 173–212.

3. For further discussion of this see WaltzK., Man, The State and War (New York, 1959), chs. 1–3, pp. 1–79.

4. See AngellN., The Great Illusion (London, 1911).

5. The concept of ‘national interest’ has of course been the subject of intensive criticism, most notably by Rosenau. However, its validity was wholly accepted by Mitrany and so it is his usage which is liable to criticism. The debate concerning the validity or otherwise of the concept may be followed by RosenauJ., ‘National Interest’, The International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1968), vol. 11, pp. 34–40. Also FrankelJ., National Interest (London, 1970) and Contemporary International Theory and The Behaviour of States (London, 1973). Frankel defines ‘national interest’ as ‘the most widely used and generally intelligible shorthand description of all purposive elements in foreign policy’, (p. 77).

6.TaylorP., International Co-operation today (London, 1971), p. 59; ToozeR., ‘The Progress of International Functionalism’, British Journal of International Studies, vol. 3, no. 2 (1977), p. 210; GroomA. J. and TaylorP., Functionalism (London, 1975), p. 1. See also Taylor's ‘Introduction’ to Mitrany, op. cit., 1975, pp. ix-xxv. Also, TaylorP. and GroomA. J., International Organisation (London, 1978), pp. 11–27.

7.MitranyD., A Political Theory for the New Society, from Groom & Taylor, op. cit., 1975, p. 26.

8. See BullH., ‘International Theory, the Case for the Classical Approach’ originally published in World Politics, vol. 8(3) pp. 361–377; reprinted with essays in reply to KnorrK. and RosenauJ., Contending Approaches to International Politics (Princeton, 1969), pp. 20–38. See also Kaplan'sM. reply to Bull and (more illuminatingly) Vital's rejoinder to both, pp.144–157.

9. Quoted in LeiberR., Theory and International Politics (London, 1973), p. 8.

10. Mitrany, op. cit., 1948, p. 356.

11. Mitrany, op. cit., 1933 (and 1975, p. 101).

12. Mitrany, op. cit., 1943 (and 1975, p. 128).

13. Mitrany, op. cit., (and 1966, pp. 76–7). See also SohnL. B., ‘Expulsion or Forced Withdrawal from an International Organisation’, Harvard Law Review, vol. 77, no. 8 (1964) pp. 1401–1416.

14. Mitrany, op. cit., 1943 (and 1966, p. 92).

15. The use of the ‘public goods’ concept as a means of analysing the work of functional international organizations is discussed by RussettB. M. and SullivanJ. D., ‘Collective Goods and International Organisation’, International Organisation25(4) (1971) pp. 845–865.

16.MitranyD., ‘The Progress of International Government’, op. cit., 1975, p. 32.

17. Mitrany, op. cit., 1971, p. 539.

18. See ImberM. F., ‘NPT Safeguards—The Limits of Credibility’, Arms Control, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 177–198 for a detailed analysis of one such comprehensive regulatory regime.

19. Mitrany, op. cit., 1943 (and 1966, p. 125).

20.Ibid, p. 27.

21.Ibid, p. 31.

22.Ibid, p. 95.

23. Mitrany, op. cit., 1941 (and 1975, pp. 115–16).

24. See in particular SewellJ. P., Functionalism and World Politics (Princeton, 1966), pp. 55–56. Also Sewell's ‘Policy Process and International Organisation Tasks’ from CoxR. (ed.) International Organisation, World Politics (London, 1969), p. 99. And Haas, op. cit., 1964. pp. 21–4.

25. Sewell, op. cit., 1969, p. 99.

26. Cox (ed.), 1969, p. 29.

27.MitranyD., International Security,1944 (and 1975, p. 183).

28. Mitrany, op. cit., 1943 (and 1975, p. 132).

29. Supra, note 14.

30. D. Mitrany, 1943 (and 1966, pp. 31, 76).

31. Supra, note 4.

32.KeynesJ. M., The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919).

33. D. Mitrany, 1973 (and 1975, p. 231).

34.ClaudeI., Jnr., Swords into Ploughshares (New York, 1964), p. 355.

35. C. Pentland, 1973, and Haas, 1964.

36. Groom and Taylor, op. cit., 1975, p. 3.

37.Mitrany, ‘Retrospect and Prospect’ from op. cit., 1975, p. 262.

38. For a remarkable parallel to Mitrany's views, see FinerH., The T. V.A.: Lessons for International Application (New York, 1972), pp. 26–28, originally published by the International Labour Office, 1944.

39. Claude, op. cit., pp. 348–50.

40. Mitrany, 1975, p. 261.

41.Ibid. p. 266.

42. Claude, op. cit., pp. 351–2.

43. Sewell, op. cit., 1969, ch. 4 and Cox, op. cit., 1969, p. 15.

44. Mitrany, op. cit., 1971, p. 403.

45. Mitrany, 1943 (and 1966, p. 75).

46.Ibid. p. 75.

47.Ibid. p. 76.

48. Mitrany, 1954 (and 1966, p. 126).

49.CoxR., ‘Labour and Hegemony’, International Organisation (31, 3, 1977) pp. 385–424. Also, (Anon.)N. M.‘International Labour in Crisis’, Foreign Affairs (vol. 49, 3, 1971), pp 519–532.

50. Provisions for n.g.o. consultation exist in the UN Charter, Article 71.

51. Mitrany, 1943 (and 1966, p. 64).

52.Ibid. p. 65.

53.Ibid. p. 81.

54. Claude, op. cit., p. 111.

55. Mitrany, 1943 (and 1966, pp. 75–6). See also FawcettJ. E. S., ‘The Havana Charter’ Yearbook of World Affairs,1951.

56. Haas, 1964, p. Ill, Pentland, 1973, p. 79.

57. Pentland, 1973, p. 79.

58. Sewell, 1966, p. 39.

59.TalmonJ. L., The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (London, 1952).

60. Haas, 1964, p. 34.

61.Ibid. p. 20.

62.Ibid. pp. 107–9.

63. Mitrany, 1943 (and 1966, pp. 115–16).

64.RothwellC. E., ‘International Organization and World Politics’ from L. Goodrich and D. Kay, International Organization: Politics and Process (Wisconsin, 1973), p. 8.

65.TaylorP., International Cooperation Today (London, 1971), p. 118.

* I should like to acknowledge the guidance provided by Dr John Simpson of Southampton University in the original research from which this article is derived, and to express my thanks to Dr Peter Calvert, also of Southampton University, and Professor Roger Williams of Manchester University for their comments on an earlier draft.

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