Citing Music Sources in Your Essay and Bibliography - the 2007 version
[This is an expanded version of a document originating from Western's Don Wright Faculty of Music-- the former Music History Department - now part of the Department of Music Research and Composition.]
Please BEWARE - the formatting is NOT OPTIMAL in this html document. I advise consulting the PDF version, for greater accuracy of spacing, etc. LRP.
INDEX, text-based citations:
INDEX, musical citations:
Many students have probably not had much experience writing essays on music, a kind of writing that has its own stylistic conventions. Humanistic writing on music usually follows the Turabian guide (which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style), and Turabian will be followed in most of the history courses offered at Western. No matter what style guide is followed, it is important to be consistent and clear, so that the reader can easily track down your references.
Spell-out notes, keys and chords
When writing a music history essay, avoid using abbreviations and symbols:
middle C, E, G-natural, A-flat, F-sharp
the keys of F-sharp minor and E-flat major
the triad D-F-sharp-A
Use of hyphen in adjectival forms:
noun: adjective: twentieth century twentieth-century music quarter note quarter-note movement eighth note eighth-note triplet sixteenth note sixteenth-note figure thirty-second note thirty-second-note passage
Use of italics
In the days of typewriters, underlining was an instruction to the typesetter to set a particular passage in italics. With modern software, we now use italics.
Italicize all foreign words unless they are particularly familar in English usage:
tempo, cello, symphony
tempi, celli, opéra comique
tempo, tempos, but tempi
libretto, librettos, but libretti
crescendo, crescendos, but crescendi
allegro, andante, cantus firmus, recitative, Kappellmeister
[Beware of "inventing" your own terms; there is NO such verb as "to crescendo"!]
Titles of musical compositions:
a) Titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions are italicized:
The Magic Flute
Death and Transfiguration
b) Titles of songs and other short compositions are given in quotation marks:
"Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring"
c) Titles consisting of generic terms are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks:
Brahms's Ballade op. 118 no. 3
Schubert's Piano Sonata in B-flat Major
Chopin's Waltz in C-sharp Minor
d) Movement titles are generally capitalized; individual movements from larger works are placed within quotation marks:
Andante from Mozart's Symphony in G Minor
Kyrie from Beethoven's Missa Solemnis
"On a rainy night" from Beckwith's Lyrics of the T'ang Dynasty
e) Names of pieces with specific titles should be italicized, IF it is a TRUE title (i.e., one that the composer has given to the work):
Schumann's Scenes from Childhood
Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (Eroica)
the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven
f) Names of individual movements from larger compositions (including choral works), when such movements are referred to by title, are placed in quotation marks:
"Contentedness" from Schumann's Scenes from Childhood
"And He Shall Purify..." from Handel's Messiah
"Wohin" from Die Schöne Müllerin
"Air with Variations" (The Harmonious Blacksmith) from Handel's Suite no. 5 in E Major
Title for a musical example:
It is important to identify clearly the musical examples you choose to illustrate your essay. You should provide all the necessary details: composer, title, movement (if appropriate) and measure numbers:
Ex. 1. Mozart, Symphony no. 41 ("Jupiter") K. 551, I, mm. 17-23
In the text of the essay, refer to this example as Ex.1
FOOTNOTE [F] vs. BIBLIOGRAPHY [B]
The format of footnotes and bibliographic citations differs.
A footnote is like a sentence, with each major item (author, title, facts of publication) separated by a comma.
A bibliographic citation, which begins at the left margin, with all subsequent lines indented (known as a “hanging indent”), separates major elements with a period.
[You will notice that all FOOTNOTE examples are numbered consecutively, as they would be in an essay.] NOTE that all items in a Bibliography are normally listed alphabetically–by the author's surname.
If there is no author's name for an item, list that one item by its title (alphabetically) within the list - please see the Sample Bibliography on page 14 of this document.
The following examples conform to the 7th edition (2007) of Turabian.
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ARTICLES -- Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Periodicals, Serials
The seventh edition of the Turabian guide offers different formats for magazine and journal citations, which can be problematic. Upon examining her citations (17.2-17.4), it appears that magazines and newspapers tend to offer one-page articles, while journal articles cover several pages. If you are writing a scholarly paper, choose the citation example for journals 17.2 – which requires you to specify the pagination of the entire article for your bibliography. [The footnote examples below refer to a single page, as is often the case for footnotes.]
1. Richard Semmens, “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 347. [F]
Semmens, Richard. “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 337-48. [B]
2. Stephen McClatchie, "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario," Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 387. [F]
McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.[B].
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3. Susan McClary, Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 197. [F]
McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1991. [B]
4. Janet R. Barrett, Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen, Sound ways of knowing : music in theinterdisciplinary curriculum (New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997), 114-16. [F]
Barrett, Janet R. , Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen. Sound ways of knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum. New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997. [B]
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Essentially, you are citing a journal article, with the added complication of including the title of the reviewed book. Remember that underlining a title = italics, so BOTH the title of the journal and the title of the book must be italicized.
5. Robert Carl, review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary, in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1289. [F]
Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary Notes: QuarterlyJournal of the Music Library Association48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. [B]
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CITING FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE -- or -- "I could not consult the 'original'"
Occasionally, one is forced to cite an entry which refers to another important work. It may be impossible to consult the "original" work, if the original is rare, signed-out, or otherwise difficult to locate. The secondary work may provide a portion of the original work, or may provide a necessary translation; you will cite the original as contained in the secondary source in the following manner:
6. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 212; in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca
(New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]
7. Paul Dukas, "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas," La Revue Musical, Special Number:
"La Jeunesse de Debussy" (May, 1926); cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying
booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics,
CDM 7640962, 1980, 8. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 7048] [F]
Dukas, Paul. "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas." La Revue Musical, Special Number: "LaJeuness de Debussy" (May, 1926). Cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics. CDM 7640962, 1980, 8-10. Compact disc. [UWO MCD7048] [B]
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DICTIONARIES / ENCYCLOPAEDIAS (four different citation styles--choose ONE)
[FYI--S.v. is the abbreviation for a Latin term, sub verbo, or sub voce, meaning "under the word."]
8. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964, s.v. "ornamentation." [F]
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation." [B]
*** OR ***
9. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, 1986, s.v. "electro-acoustic music," by Jon H. Appleton. [F]
Subsequent short-form entries (of Ex. 9 above) can be abbreviated to:
10. Appleton, "electro-acoustic music" in New Harvard Dictionary.[F]
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. 1986. S.v. "electro-acoustic music" by Jon H. . Appleton. [B]
*** OR ***
Despite its name, TheNew Grove Dictionary is an encyclopaedia. The articles are written by experts, and signed; some articles have been extracted and published as individual books. While the preceding examples are all correct, some prefer the following citation format, which resembles the format for citing journal articles:
11. Michael F. Robinson, "Auletta, Pietro," in Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), I: 698. [F]
Robinson, Michael F. "Auletta, Pietro." Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music andMusicians. London: Macmillan, 1980. I: 697-698. [B]
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The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is also available online. Please be aware that the citation examples given in Grove Music Online reflect British practice, and as such are incorrect for those North Americans using either the Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
Please also bear in mind that The New Grove is a special case: while “Dictionary” may be part of its title, it is NOT a generic dictionary. References to “dictionaries” in style manuals simply do not apply to the various incarnations of the Grove dictionaries!
12. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Schafer, R. Murray" (by Stephen Adams), http://www.grovemusic.com/
(accessed November 19, 2007). [F]
Adams, Stephen. S.v. "Schafer, R. Murray." Grove Music Online. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed
November 19, 2007). [B]
ESSAYS & FESTSCHRIFTEN
13. Gary C. Thomas, "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics,"
in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas (New York: Routledge, 1994), 167. [F]
Thomas, Gary C. "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics." In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas,155-203. New York: Routledge, 1994. [B]
Festschrift, citing entire volume, with editor as 'author':
14. David Hunter, ed., Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 111. [F]
Hunter, David, ed. Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994. [B]
Festschrift, citing a single essay by one author:
15. Calvin Elliker, "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly," in Music
Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, ed. David Hunter.
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 191. [F]
Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In MusicPublishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. [B]
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16. Gustav Mahler to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897, in The Mahler Family Letters, ed. Stephen
McClatchie (New York: Oxford, 2006), 320. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Gustav to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897. In The Mahler Family Letters, edited by Stephen McClatchie. New York: Oxford, 2006. [B]
17. César Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, 91, Gift of the Wilhelmina
McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music, The Opera Collection, MZ590, Music Library, University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Cui, César. Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, 91. Gift of the Wilhelmina McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music. The Opera Collection, MZ590. Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
MUSIC, PRINTED -- separate edition
18. Louise Talma, Pastoral Prelude (Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952), 5. [F]
Talma, Louise. Pastoral Prelude. Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952. [B]
19. Claude Debussy, "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes, ed. Pierre Marchand (Paris: Durand, ca.
1910), 8. [F]
Debussy, Claude. "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes. Edited by Pierre Marchand. Paris: Durand, ca.1910. [B]
20. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute, original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl
Giesecke, English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Schirmer, 1951), 157. [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Magic Flute. Original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl Giesecke. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951. [B]
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MUSIC, PRINTED -- issued as part of an Anthology, or Collected Work
21. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 213.[F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. [B]
22. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Die Zauberflöte, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue
Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970), 205. [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue Ausgabesämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970. [B]
23. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272, in Twenty-one Concert Arias forSoprano,
v.1 (New York: G. Schirmer, 1952), 15.[F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Twenty-one Concert Arias for Soprano, v.1, 14-34. New York: G. Schirmer, 1952. [B]
24. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed.
Claude V. Palisca (New York: Norton, 1988), 338.[F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V.
Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]
25. Undine Smith Moore, “Mother to Son,” in Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James R. Briscoe (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997), 224-28. [F]
Moore, Undine Smith. “Mother to Son.” In Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, 224-28. Edited by James R. Briscoe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. [B]
MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - ORIGINAL
26. Gustav Mahler, "Symphony No. 1," copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-1889, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu
OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [B]
MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS- FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS
27. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana di Firenze. 15th century
music manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F.
Alberto Gallo. (Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992), f. 14. [F]
Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. [B]
MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED -- vinyl, cassettes, DATs, CDs, etc.
You will notice that several of the following examples do not include a date. While CDs frequently have a date of manufacture on the label, vinyl recordings often do not include this information. Rather than provide incorrect information, it is preferable to omit the date. The manufacturer's name and label number are sufficient to identify a recording. You may choose to include the Library's call number for an item, where applicable.
28. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted
by Bruno Walter (Columbia ML 5794), vinyl recording. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. Columbia ML 5794. Vinyl recording. [B]
29. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard
Bernstein, Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6866] [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein.
Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] [B]
30. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz
with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher, Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2.,
recorded 1966, reissued 1966. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 11121] [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher. Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2. Recorded1966, reissued 1996. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 11121] [B]
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MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED: 'Accompanying Notes' or Booklet Information
The booklets which accompany CDs, the jackets/sleeves of vinyl LPs, and other "inserts" are legitimate sources of information, especially when the author's name is provided. Generally speaking, "signed" works are considered to be more reliable and scholarly than unsigned works. Again, the call number is optional. See also example no. 5 (above), which deals with a translated text.
31. Humphrey Searle, "Anton Webern" in accompanying booklet, Webern: CompleteWorks Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez, SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [F]
Searle, Humphrey. "Anton Webern" essay in accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete WorksOpp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez. SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [B]
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Citing an obituary in your essay? Follow the format for ARTICLES (above). It makes no difference whether the obituary comes from a newspaper or a journal, so long as you provide the full pagination.[Return to Index]
REPRINT EDITIONS - BOOKS
Works of special significance are often reprinted. One must give details of both the original and the reprint editions as shown by the following examples.
32. Allen Forte, The Compositional Matrix (Baldwin, N.Y.: Music Teachers National Association, 1961;
reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971), 35-39 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]
Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. [B]
REPRINT EDITIONS - SCORES
Many important music manuscripts have been made available in reproduction editions (see MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS above); important (or otherwise interesting) editions of early published music have also been reprinted, and are of interest to performers and scholars alike.
33. William Boyce, Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatason various subjects. (London: I. Walsh, ; reprint, Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.), 8-9 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]
Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on varioussubjects. London: I. Walsh, . Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.. [B]
THESES AND DISSERTATIONS
These are technically unpublished works, written to fulfill degree requirements at a particular institution.
A thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Masters degree:
34. Anthony Strangis, "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." (MM thesis,
University of Western Ontario, 1987), 179. [F]
Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987. [B]
A dissertation is written for a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy ) degree:
35. Alison Stonehouse, "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997), 133. [F]
Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997. [B]
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See also example no. 7 above, which cites a translated text as given in a CD booklet.
36. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments, trans. and edited by William J. Mitchell (New York : W. W. Norton, ), 97. [F]
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. Translated and edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: Norton, . [B]
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37. Richard Strauss, Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall, 105 min., Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [F]
Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2,1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [B]
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CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS [WWW, CD-ROMS, email]
Citing electronic documents and information differs somewhat from citation formats for print materials. You still require the same basic information:
- author -- this can be a person, a company, a library
- responsibility -- (Photographer) or (Painter) or ??
- date -- of an art work, or date of copyright, or update
- title -- title of the web-page, CD-ROM index or database
- nature -- [Photograph] [Image of oil painting]
- format -- [CD-ROM] or [Online] or [Electronic] or [Internet]
- publisher -- data provider/company
- identifier -- database identifier/accession number of article
- date -- date you viewed/consulted the information
The date may be found on a CD-ROM disc, but when the CD-ROM is networked, you do not have the opportunity to see the actual disc. You may see a version number or copyright date as you log-in to a database or networked CD-ROM. Alternately, you may cite the date you accessed the product or service. The latest edition of Turabian does not require an "access date," however all other style guides do require this information.
Certain databases give accession numbers (e.g. ERIC), and those accession numbers should be included in your bibliographic citation. Essentially, you should provide sufficient information so that someone reading your essay can find the same information/site--which means that you should include the complete URL (beginning with: http://...) if you are citing a WWW-site. Given the "fugitive nature: of information on the WWW, if you are engaged in writing a thesis or dissertation, it would be wise to PRINT a copy of any needed web-document, and physically include it in your work (as an Appendix or other type of example).
Cite ONLY those electronic sources which are full-text or which provide other useful information. Indexing tools which provide citations only, such as the Music Index (print version), are not cited; do not cite electronic indexes, either -- unless they provide full-text articles!
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in print form
If you are able to consult the print version of the article, then you can use the less-complicated citation format for ARTICLES (above). Electronic full-text articles may provide the pagination of the original, but rarely format the document with the original "page breaks", which has implications for citation format (meaning that you should count the number of paragraphs, and then specify them, by number).
38. Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera,"
Canadian Theatre Review (Fall 1998): 5-8, Canadian Business and Current Affairs: par. 12, online, available: Silver Platter WebSPIRS, [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119, accessed 1999, December 12. [F]
Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera." Canadian Theatre Review (Fall, 1998): 5-8. Canadian Business and Current Affairs [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119. Accessed 1999, December 12.[B]
39. Joanne Close, "A case for arts education," Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para. 4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. [F]
Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/DEC 1997): 26-29, CanadianBusiness and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. [B]
40. Stephen McClatchie, “The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source,”19th-Century Music 20 (Autumn, 1996): 102-3, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [F]
McClatchie, Stephen. "The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source." 19th-CenturyMusic 20 (Autumn, 1996): 99-124. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [B]
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in French, translation available on WWW
41. Louise Lamothe, "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" interview by Richard Baillargeon, Rendez-vous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992?, para. 5 online, translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12; available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm, Internet, accessed 2000, December 17. [F]
Lamothe, Louise. "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" Interview by Richard Baillargeon. Rendezvous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992? Translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12. Available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm. Internet. Accessed 2000, December 17. [B]
PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE WWW
Not all sites provide the "required" information for a complete bibliographic citation. Check the list given on the previous page [under CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS] and include as much information as is possible.
42. Lawrie Raskin, (Photographer), Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue
West in Toronto, January 20, 1983 [Photograph on Internet], Glenn Gould Archive, National Library
of Canada, available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/ iv41.jpg, Internet, accessed 2000, January 7. [F]
Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. [B]
[Return to Index]
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – the sample bibliography
Bibliographies are arranged in ALPHABETICAL ORDER - by the author’s surname. If, on occasion, you have NO author’s name - the convention is to use the TITLE (and IGNORE leading articles such as “the”, “a”) when placing the item alphabetically within your list.
Hanging indents are required. A bibliographic citation is single-spaced, with a double-space between citations.
Following is a sample bibliography, using items cited within this handout (as this is intended to be a sample, all preceding examples have NOT been included - however your bibliography must include all cited/footnoted references). I have included one additional item, to illustrate the convention used - to denote a second item by the same author (i.e. see the Mahler and McClatchie citations below).
Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on various subjects. London: I. Walsh, . Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d..
Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary. Notes:Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291.
Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec1997): 26-29, Canadian Businessand Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000.
Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992.
Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203.
Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971.
Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
______. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866]
McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.
______. "'Liebste Justi': The Family Letters of Gustav Mahler." In Mahler Studies, ed. Stephen E. Hefling, 53-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 1980. S.v. "Auletta, Pietro," by Michael F. Robinson.
Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7.
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation."
Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997.
Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987.
Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26]
Revised and updated by: Lisa Rae Philpott, Music Reference Librarian, 2007/11/21. Re-formatted (again) using Drupal, 2010/03/19. Re-formatted (footnotes incorrectly displayed HANGING indents, uncertain as to timing of that change), 2014.7.4th.
Please send comments/corrections/suggestions to: Lisa Rae Philpott
A Digital Essay by Melinda White, University of New Hampshire
Figure 1: Digital classroom: where the creativity happens
Computer labs and computers as tools of expression are hardly new to students, however there are new ways of reading, new ways of creating meaning and narrative through multimodal storytelling that students, particularly creative writers, may not have considered. It is only natural that generations that, as Ted Nelson predicted, “live in media, as fish live in water” (3)—who have grown up with or adapted to computers, cell phones, cable television, music downloading, and social networking (sometimes all at once)— would utilize the tools at hand to compose creative and scholarly work1, and communicate with others. As Anne Frances Wysocki argues in Writing New Media, “when someone makes an object that is both separate from her but that shows how she can use the tools and materials of her time, then she can see a possible self—a self positioned and working within the wide material conditions of her world, even shaping that world—in that object” (21). In the digital creative writing course I developed at the University of New Hampshire, students read and compose multimedia texts, requiring them to think beyond the page and consider more modes besides linguistic, particularly including visual and audio modes,2 in storytelling. They develop a crucial understanding of how, and more importantly why these texts are composed using the medium, and then proceed to shape the world with their own words and conscientious employment of multimodal textual elements.
The pedagogical foundation of the course is based on the significance of a text that needs the medium, that N. Katherine Hayles defines in her essay “Electronic Literature: What is it?” as “‘digital born,’ a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer” (Hayles). Just as in any creative writing course, form and theory play a major role. We read multimodal examples of creative nonfiction and discuss the repercussions and unique techniques of rhetorical analysis needed for these types of works. This includes the affordances3 of each mode—what elements are best communicated with different media—for instance, oral readings of work are often more emotional than written text and visual language is often more ambiguous. They learn how the meaning of texts cannot be separated from their medium. As Cheryl E. Ball offers in a clever Tweet included in Writer/Designer: A Guide to Making Multimodal Projects: “What you say cannot be divorced from how you say it. It’s the same with multimodal texts. #WriterDesigner” (42).
Although the course is digitally focused, we still cover the basics of creative nonfiction and read both print and digital texts. The first assignment is print, but written about a work of art; digital assignments include a snapshot (short video) essay, a map essay, and a hypertext essay. Throughout the course, students also choose one work from the course readings and give a close-reading presentation. Instructor conference, peer workshop, and revision are also main components of each assignment. The course description reads:
Focused on creative uses of multimedia in composition, this course will cover traditional nonfiction elements such as sensory details, narrative, and expressing the human condition, while also including visual, audio, and electronic text to engage readers. Like an artist’s paintbrush, the computer can be a creative tool in the writing process. Exploring methods, forms, and functions of works of both print and digital nonfiction will provide students with context and the foundational skills to express themselves through multimedia writing projects such as video, Google Maps, and the web. Writers will become composers, telling their stories with digital media.
As an introductory course in creative nonfiction, we cover what it is (and, rather, isn’t), what it means to write in the genre, talk about style and form, sensory details and dialogue, and adhere to Anne Lamott’s suggestion to “listen to your broccoli” (110), meaning trust your instincts. Although we read print and multimedia texts, with the digital texts we stress throughout the semester the “digital born” aspect and why these texts need (or don’t) their medium and modes. This takes some getting used to but the computer allows students to read, interact with, analyze, and compose multimodal texts that are meant for the medium.
In 1974, when Ted Nelson wrote Computer Lib/Dream Machines, he knew that technology would play a huge role in our lives and predicted that “many [people] want to use them to communicate artistic visions” (3). For digital natives, this doesn’t seem to be too much of a stretch, however throughout the course students (ideally) additionally become more conscious of the rhetorical choices of various modes in both reading analysis and composition. As Troy Hicks expresses in Crafting Digital Writing: Composing Texts Across Media and Genres:
I want to see our “digital generation” live up to their potential as conscientious citizens and creative producers of text in all forms. Sure, they can post status updates quicker than most of us adults can pull out our phones. Yet inviting them to be intentional about the craft of digital writing is perhaps the best way to help them realize their potential in academic, social, political, and community contexts. When we talk and teach thoughtfully about the elements of digital writing—words, images, sounds, videos, links, and other media elements—we are helping them be purposeful and, in turn, helping them be creative. (19)
Because students are familiar with technology—texting, posting photos on Instagram, reposting to Tumblr, updating Facebook, uploading videos to YouTube—this doesn’t preclude that some students are not comfortable with various technology, and some might even be unsure of their abilities on the computer or with new software in general. Aesthetic design is not the main focus of the course4 but must be given attention as it contributes to (or can take away from) meaning. As Hicks suggests, it would be easy to say that writing courses should not concern themselves with design modes when teaching digital writing, and focus on the text, but, of course, we are already aware that the modes and the meaning cannot be separated. Hicks expands: “With digital writing, we need to think with words, of course; yet we also need to begin thinking like artists, web designers, recording engineers, photographers, and filmmakers. In other words, intentional choices about craft can lead to creative work in a variety of writing media” (18-19).
There are more intentional choices with multimodal writing and while some students struggle with the technology in some or all portions of the course, for the most part the digital composition process is almost second nature to them. As technology becomes more complicated and provides students more options, the creativity and experimentation tends to flourish as well. Daniel Anderson discusses the benefits of introducing students to unfamiliar technologies in his article, “From a Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures”: “engaging technical things comes with a bigger payoff. Experimenting with unfamiliar technologies can facilitate a sense of creativity that can lead to motivation” (363). This is particularly significant in creative writing, where exploring the creative affordances of the media, seems to extend to the words, the topics, and the stories as themselves. Students learn technical skills as they compose, often from each other. We also have a great resource, the Parker Media Lab, where students can check out equipment, as well as work on and get assistance with digital projects.
Figure 2: Course website
Besides our course textbook (for print and graphic essays), Creating Nonfiction, a Guide and Anthology by Becky Bradway and Doug Hess, digital course readings are linked on the course website, along with the schedules and assignment descriptions, and a course gallery of student work. Each unit has a topic/theme for both the assignments and readings: Art, Identity, Place, and Connections. These units move from discussing art to visual rhetoric and linear to nonlinear writing.
The Art of Writing (and writing about art)
In the first unit we focus on the ambiguous definition of creative nonfiction as a genre and integrating art into writing, a step to talking about both written description and incorporating visual elements (without actual images), that we need as the semester progresses. We first focus on the idea of Truth and writing sensory description and dialogue. For this unit we read descriptive essays, two excerpts from ekphrastic print works: Mark Doty’s Still Life with Oysters and Lemon and Terry Tempest William’s Leap, a book based on Hieronymus Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights. During our reading discussion, we look at the artwork from each of these essays and discuss how the author’s descriptions match (or don’t) what we’re seeing and how seeing the art might influence our interpretations. We also read/view our first video essay, Brian Bouldrey’s “Dead Christ” and discuss why it needs the medium, how it would “look” as a print essay, how his voice enhances the emotion behind the words.
We then take a trip to the UNH Art Museum where we participate with the curator in a rhetorical analysis of some of the artworks, students do a collaborative descriptive words poetry activity and then individually choose a work of art to trigger their first assignment, a personal essay that incorporates extensive description of the work and integrates it into their memory or event. Ekphrastic writing requires writers to consider visual narratives and pull their own stories from visual media. Students are already aware of visuals and structural experimentation, as they can integrate the art descriptions and the scenes of their essay in a variety of ways. With Bouldrey’s essay, they also begin to see the affordances of the visual mode, and recognize the linguistic work they must do to make up for the reader not seeing their artwork.
Identity (a picture is worth a thousand words)
This leads us into a discussion of visual rhetoric, images as text, and video essays for the second unit, on identity. We read excerpts of John Berger’s Ways of Seeing and discuss visual rhetoric, how visuals can be text and convey emotions, often more directly, but sometimes in a more fluid, ambiguous, subjective way (and how this complicates things for both author and reader). As an in-class assignment, students work in groups to compose visual narratives to practice telling a story or making an argument with only images, no alphabetic text. This illustrates for them both the difficulty of telling stories without words, but also the challenge of conveying an unambiguous message to an audience this way.
We read essays in both print and digital form that embody some expression of identity, including the video essays, That Kind of Daughter by Kristen Radtke and Baptism by Marilyn Freeman, which, besides Bouldrey, is the introduction to the form. Both essays prompt a conversation about visual style, need for the medium, visual and audio modalities, and identity. That Kind of Daughter is a creative example of how the visual mode can be an artistic representation of the linguistic, rather than the author attempting a direct correlation, and, further, how that representation can change the meaning of the text. With the affordance of audio, this is a good place to discuss voice and tone; although Radke’s essay is personal and the visuals have an intimate delicacy about them, her voice is even and monotone, perhaps purposefully to contrast the content and show her emotional distance. Baptism is also especially good for discussing how medium can convey message. Not only does Freeman focus on identity, through her name and how it does or does not fit her, she uses an interesting film technique to visually express the metaphor of misplaced identity, by having various others mouth her own spoken words throughout the beginning of the essay. We hear Freeman’s voice, but are never sure who is mouthing the words in the video and, moreover, are left wondering which person, if any, is our narrator; her identity is not revealed until much later in the essay, which enhances the purpose.
For this unit, students compose a short video essay (called a Snapshot essay) on identity, their own or someone else’s, with voice narration (and sometimes background music or sounds, although this is another discussion). The challenge is to not let go of descriptive writing because they can now use images to “show” their narrative. Students often hate hearing their own voice so that is something they have to overcome but the audio illustrates the emotional nature of the text and the sound of language, a significant element in creative writing. These essays are linear in structure though, which is familiar for them, even if they experimented with structure in the art narrative essay. Because of the theme of identity and the narration, these are often the most emotionally moving essays of the semester.
In “An Exclusive Interview with Joey Kenny, Kenny Brothers Band,” Joseph Kenny writes about his own identity through music in a “Before They Were Famous”-type interview style. One other student has done their essay in an interview style but this one is unique in that it has a fictional premise, where the student is reflecting back on the beginning of his music career, yet it is still autobiographical. Joseph’s combination of music, images, and video clips really reflect his writing style. He conscientiously chose a style that fits reader expectations of the genre and affordances of both visual and audio modes.
Figure 3: Snapshot essay by Joseph Kenny
Whitney Carrier’s innovative essay, “A Letter from a Mother to a Daughter,” was the first one a student recorded using someone else as the narrator. In this case, Whitney has her daughter read the essay, a letter to her daughter, and then adds conversational questions throughout the video. The form of a letter makes the essay more personal and images of the daughter growing up (most with mother and daughter together) add an important visual layer. Perhaps most significantly, the daughter’s voice makes it even more sentimental and expressive, as it adds to the meaning of the author’s identity as it was formed and impacted by the identity of her daughter. Speaking to her daughter throughout the essay illustrates the mother/daughter relationship in a way we could only be witness to through the affordance of audio. Whitney not only considered the best linguistic approach to this essay, but also one that would benefit from multiple modes, affording multiple layers of meaning.
Place (where we have been & where we are going)
In unit 3, we move to the role of place and places in shaping identity. Place and travel writing play a large role in creative nonfiction. Although these may seem like straightforward, more factual forms, the author’s identity and unique style are what separate creative nonfiction from travel journalism. For this unit, we discuss the idea of place while also continuing with how message needs medium and an introduction to nonlinear writing with the creation of a map essay. Although place writing could be about the author’s hometown (and some of the essays we read are), Bradway and Hesse offer a broad definition of place, which I use in my assignment description for this unit:
Writers have long been writing about the paths they encounter, whether these are found on the other side of the world or in the backyard. It’s easy to make the assumption that place writing is synonymous with nature writing. Not so. A NASCAR track, the Apollo Theater, and the riverbank are all places, worthy of the same degree of absorption (23).
Because the map essay also provides an ideal forum for student travel and study abroad experiences, we also talk about travel writing and how it differs from more informative writing on travel destinations (including, conveniently, something about the author’s identity). This unit includes several place and travel-themed readings that include more of a sampling of interactive digital literature. In groups, students analyze works from the National Film Board of Canada’s (NFB) HYPERLOCAL essays, six interactive pieces on place that provide comparisons in both the variants of this topic and also varying degrees of interactivity, use of voice, image, narration, and video work. This also starts a discussion of navigation in digital work, something that becomes vital in the final unit of the semester. We also read one map essay to prepare for the assignment, “Mr. Plimpton’s Revenge” by Dinty W. Moore, which works well in a discussion of writing and medium (many students think this essay would work just as well in print). Students then compose an essay on place or travel using Google’s My Maps, where they can add writing, images, and video to points on a map. The goal for the map essay is for students to both write about place or travel that is meaningful to them, and utilize a new, potentially nonlinear, medium to convey their experience of place. Some students at this point find it difficult to give up on the idea of a firm linear structure to their essays and will employ numbering or other ways of influencing the order the reader chooses to interact with their essays (including introductions in the map description field and subtitles like, “read this one last”). Although giving up on authorial control is sometimes frustrating, these essays are often the students’ favorite—the technology is fairly simple and it’s an effective introduction to the idea of nonlinear writing.
Figure 4: Mr. Plimpton’s Revenge by Dinty W. Moore
Students are often drawn to writing about their homes, some literally write about their own backyards, and some explore mapping journeys or a collection of significant moments that are tied to place. Since in this essay, medium is also already chosen, the subject matter is influenced by the affordances of the visual of the map. They also put thought into the navigation, some visual design, including whether or not to include pictures and/or video and, if so, of what. In Emma Giordano’s essay, “My Other Home,” she writes about her family experiences tied to their summer cabin in Vermont. Andrew Teagno’s essay, “Travels to 90,000’,” documents his experience climbing Cotopaxi in Ecuador. This essay fits with our discussion of creative travel writing, which, according to Bradway and Hesse, “has a strong narrative voice and a writer deeply and directly involved in the events of the place. The narrator is usually going somewhere new; a sense of adventuring into the unknown is nearly always the dominant tone, often inflected by physical and/or emotional risk” (24). Both of these essays express something about their authors, whether it is through family scenes or a travel adventure.
Connections (listen to your (multimodal) broccoli)
The final unit of the semester is all about connections, as we delve even deeper into interactive and nonlinear works of electronic literature and students compose a hypertext essay with images and links, published online through the students’ web space. For foundational theory, we discuss Marshall McLuhan’s concept of “the medium is the message” (19), Ted Nelson’s coining of the term “hypertext,” and his Project Xanadu, and travel even farther back to Vannevar Bush’s article, “As We May Think” (from 1945)—intriguing ways to discuss hypertext and organic thought processes, as well as early predictions of the Internet. Students often relate to the media’s effect on message and meaning by this point in the semester and find ideas of connection in the Internet and the way we think, read, and learn. As Vannevar Bush says of the organic associations of the brain: “Man cannot hope fully to duplicate this mental process artificially, but he certainly ought to be able to learn from it” (44). During this unit we delve deeper into digital-born electronic literature, looking at work that is more game-like or “computer generated,” and use these to prompt larger discussions of literature, genre conventions and authorship.
We read some more structurally straightforward hypertexts, such as Shelley Jackson’s “My Body—A Wunderkammer,” an excellent example of a fairly straightforward hypertext in execution with complex themes of fragmented self-image and connection through pieces of memoir on various parts of the narrator’s body. We also read more interactive and dynamic works where the interaction creates the metaphor, such as “Fitting the Pattern” by Christine Wilks, that connects stages of sewing to the narrator’s memoir where each task has to be performed by the reader to move the story forward. Some students find they prefer a more straightforward navigation in an electronic text and others are intrigued by intuitive interfaces and the added meaning and/or metaphor that learning to read a text can provide. We look at some, too, where too many modes might detract from meaning; this helps students with rhetorical decisions in their own texts, for instance, navigation, audio, movement, scrolling, images, collage, font, color, etc.
Figure 5: My Body: A Wunderkammer by Shelley Jackson
This influences their design and interface choices in storyboarding their final project, where students are provided with the theme of connections and challenged to compose a hypertext essay with multiple pages and links. Students are introduced to Dreamweaver5 and FTP software to compose and upload their “digital born” texts. This is the most technically challenging project of the semester, although I’ve noticed in the student’s reflective memos, it is often the most rewarding. Anderson reminds us that, “The challenge of composing with unfamiliar forms opens pathways to creativity and motivation” (364).
This is the capstone of the semester, including a reflective memo, where students comment on the culmination of projects and how their essay “needs” the medium. For Gabrielle Greaves’, “The Lovely Bodies,” she started with an online survey, asking other students on campus what they both liked and disliked about their bodies. She then integrated their answers into pop-up windows connected to words of her poetry and included some researched sections on different “bodily” concerns. The medium allowed her essay to be a forum of collaborative voices, information, and poetry on body image, particularly in the African American community. This is an ideal environment for a multi-vocal, multi-layered work.
Figure 6: The Lovely Bodies by Gabrielle Greaves
“Jenna’s Dream Canvas” by Jenna Ward is a more personal essay that recounts the author’s dreams and includes music and dream interpretations for each one. “The Enjoyment of Music” by Geneth Chin also uses music to represent each instrument in the narrative, while the text was “concrete,” carefully formed into the shape of each instrument. While Jenna and Geneth have pretty straightforward navigation, knowing where to click for the pop-up windows on Gabrielle’s homepage is a bit more intuitive. Adding the music also adds the audio mode, something each student must decide on (some students also include video or animation). Some students have integrated Flash or animated GIFs into their essays for movement, but due to the timeframe for this assignment, some of the things they want to execute would require more technology and most are limited to links for the level of reader interaction. These essays really do take advantage of the medium and students are able to reflect on how and why they composed and designed them the way they did.
As fish in water, it is not difficult for students to understand McLuhan’s idea of media as “extensions of ourselves” (19), yet it is crucial that they understand the materiality of a text as it relates and contributes to meaning-making in order for them to compose “digital born” works of their own that are more than bells and whistles, but thoughtful and creative digital projects. The emphasis will continue to be on why these texts are made, why they must be digital born, and how students can best work with multiple modes of communication to express themselves creatively and, of course, it’s always a work in progress. As Wysocki states: “We can only see ourselves within the texts we make and give to others if we understand those texts (and how and where and with what we work as we produce them) to be connected to us through our various material relations” (18). Reading multimodal texts, from print to video to hypertext essays and learning new ways of talking about them (and analyzing them), better prepares students for relating text to medium and the affordances of multiple modalities, how they can work together to express something that may be expressed differently in a print medium. Many of our conversations of a text focus on how it needs the medium, what the design, video and audio modes, and interactive elements add to (or sometimes detract from) the meaning, and what this text would have looked like as a printed text (or if that would even be possible in many cases). This helps them understand why their own essays need the digital medium, as well as the affordances of multiple modes for creative expression; these are the tools of their time. Through this understanding, learning to talk about and create media and text in new ways, these students are breaking down the barriers of traditional print texts and using the tools of their time to shape their world and the future of storytelling.
- I would just like to take a moment, as some of the contributors to Multimodal Composition: A Critical Sourcebook did, to acknowledge a bit of irony in composing a linear article for a discussion of multimodal narratives. I felt the chronological trajectory of the course fit best in this format and hopefully have preserved a smidgen of my multimodal cred. with the course content (and a website!).
- Design modes identified by the New London Group are: Linguistic, Visual, Audio, Gestural, Spatial and Multimodal ((198), presented in their essay, “From a Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures” in Multimodal Composition: A Critical Sourcebook. These are also used in Writer/Designer: A Guide to Making Multimodal Projects, to discuss multimodal texts.
- Also addressed in Writer/Designer: A Guide to Making Multimodal Projects. “These different strengths and weaknesses of media (video, writing, pictures, etc.) and modes are called affordances” (15).
- As this is a creative writing course and my background is not in media design, I don’t contend that we go in-depth on these topics. Some students, of course, have a natural aesthetic or have taken art or design courses, but for the most part, we cover some basic design principles and ask questions about why this color, font, grouping, alignment, etc., and consider the rhetorical implications of the modes as much as possible.
- I am always considering new software for the hypertext portion of the class and will likely use Twine next semester as an option. UNH has an Adobe license, and I have a background in Dreamweaver and web design, so this is feasible for us, but I realize would not be for everyone. The main benefit (besides my own ability to teach and trouble shoot) is that it offers students a blank canvas and, thus, does not limit their creativity with the design the way a template might.
Anderson, Daniel. “The Low Bridge to High Benefits: Entry-Level Multimedia, Literacies, and Motivation.” Multimodal Composition: A Critical Sourcebook. Claire Lutkewitte, ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.
Arola, Kristin L., Jennifer Sheppard, and Cheryl E. Ball. Writer/Designer: A Guide to Making Multimodal Projects. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.
Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin Books, 1990.
Bouldrey, Brian. “Dead Christ.” TriQuarterly. Issue 146. Summer/Fall 2014.
Bradway, Becky and Doug Hess. Creating Nonfiction, a Guide and Anthology. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.
Bush, Vannevar. “As We May Think.” In The New Media Reader, ed. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort. Cambridge, MA, and London: The MIT Press, 2003. 35-47.
Carrier, Whitney. “A Letter from a Mother to a Daughter.” English 501, Fall 2015. Course Gallery. <http://multimodalmel.com/501/pages/visual%20identity%20-%20Small.mov>.
Chin, Geneth. “The Enjoyment of Music.” English 501, Fall 2015. Course Gallery.
Doty, Mark. Still Life with Oysters and Lemon. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.
Freeman, Marilyn. “Baptism.” Blackbird. Spring 2010. Vol. 9, No. 1. <http://www.blackbird.vcu.edu/v9n1/gallery/ve-freeman_m/baptism-video.shtml>.
Giordano, Emma. “My Other Home.” English 501, Fall 2014. Course Gallery.
Greaves, Gabrielle. “The Lovely Bodies.” English 501, Fall 2014. Course Gallery.
Hayles, N. Katherine. “Electronic Literature: What Is It?” 2009. Aug. 2010.
Hicks, Troy. Crafting Digital Writing: Composing Texts Across Media and Genres. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2013.
HYPERLOCAL. National Film Board of Canada. NFB website.
Jackson, Shelley. My Body—A Wunderkammer. Electronic Literature Collection Volume 1.
Kenny, Joseph. “An Exclusive Interview with Joey Kenny, Kenny Brothers Band.” English 501, Spring 2015. Course Gallery.
Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. New York: Anchor Books, 1995.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA:
The MIT Press, 1994.
Moore, Dinty W. “Mr. Plimpton’s Revenge.”
Nelson, Ted. Computer Lib/Dream Machines. Rev. ed. Richmond, WA: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press, 1987.
The New London Group. “From a Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures.” Multimodal Composition: A Critical Sourcebook. Claire Lutkewitte, ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.
Radtke, Kristen. “That Kind of Daughter.” TriQuarterly. Issue 141. Winter/Spring 2012.
Teagno, Andrew. “Travels to 90,000’.” English 501, Fall 2015. Course Gallery.
Ward, Jenna. “Jenna’s Dream Canvas.” English 501, Fall 2015. Course Gallery.
Wilks, Christine. Fitting the Pattern. Electronic Literature Collection Volume 2.
Williams, Terry Tempest. Leap. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000.
Wysocki, Anne Frances. “Opening New Media to Writing: openings & justifications.”
Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Logan, Utah: Utah State UP, 2004.